WP1 – Youth mobility: definitions and typologies
WP1 deals with theoretical and empirical overview of typologies of youth mobilities, and their main characteristics in Europe. The project tries to answer the following key questions: Who migrates? Where? For what purpose? How (which migration channel)? Gender, age, education, risk tolerance, networks, motivations and regional opportunities/environments are considered to be key determinants. For achieving this, first, the WP 1 provides a substantial review of existing theoretical frameworks for studying migration/mobility and youth transitions in Europe, together with an attempt to review the extant empirical literature on intra-European youth migration. Second, it includes an international secondary-data collection and analysis of existing international datasets and national-level data on youth mobility. The international secondary dataset is categorised into Migrant Stocks, Migrant Flows and Emigration Flows, which contain detailed datasets relating to each of the YMOBILITY partner countries. All the YMOBILITY nine countries are countries of migration origin and destination, but these have been selected to represent three main groups:
• High income, destination: Germany, Sweden, UK;
• High income, destination and origin: Ireland, Italy, Spain (medium high);
• Medium income, origin: Latvia, Romania, and Slovakia.
WP2 – Youth mobility: definition of research methodologies
The WP2 concerns the design of the ethical guidelines for the implementation of the survey questionnaire, the in-depth interviews and the experimental methods; and the definition of the procedures for an ethic check that is implemented in WP3. Another important task of WP2 is the management and the design of a survey questionnaire for the specially commissioned large panel survey that covers previous migration, education and mobility; socio-demographic and economic characteristics and migration personality. The management and the design concerns also the in-depth interviews that are done respecting the ethic guidelines previously designed. The in-depth interviews are conducted with migrants in the destinations countries, returned migrants in the countries of origin and non-migrants. Students, labour migrants with tertiary education, and labour migrants with secondary education are included in approximately equal numbers. Education rather than skilled versus unskilled is used as the stratification criterion. Moreover, a software is developed for the implementation of innovative experimental research methods previously designed. This is a web-based system that runs in a web browser, and has been translated into different languages. The management and the design of highly innovative experimental research methods are used to understand the complexities involved in making decisions about migration, and future migration in the face of uncertainty and incomplete information or information overload.
WP3 – Youth mobility – on the move: data and information collection
WP3 focuses on the implementation of the panel online survey, the in-depth interviews and the experimental methods. A large panel online survey of more than 30,000 young people is undertaken. A broadly representative sample is obtained of the total population, aged 16–35, in each country. This includes both non-migrants and those with migrant experience (currently migrants, or returned migrants). In the case of Ireland, a purposive sample was undertaken in schools to add those aged 16 and 17. A subcontractor (GfK) carried out the on-line survey, while the partners contributed to checking the translation and whether any weighting will be required in the analyses. Concerning the in-depth interviews, they are undertaken with migrants in the destination countries, and returned migrants in the countries of origins (in both core and peripheral regions). These seek to capture the main flows among the nine countries which are partners in YMOBILITY. The WP3 also involves the implementation of experimental research methods on decision-making about future migration. The sample includes a minimum of 50 participants in each country – both students and those in employment – and a mouselab-type software is used in the experiment. During the data collection, an ethics check is implemented to ensure and certify that all the appropriate procedures have been followed.
WP4 – Information sources, channels, motivations and risks
WP4 concerns the identification of the main determinants of migration behaviours & intentions for youth to migrate, their migration experiences, and the evaluation of alternative migration channels in relation to the use of information sources . These objectives will be accomplished by using the results of the analyses of qualitative interviews and panel survey data (see work packages 1 and 3) by the national teams, as well as by the overall analyses of survey and other data by the teams responsible for the specific tasks within WP4.
WP5 – Youth mobility – individual, economic and social outcomes: skills and competences, welfare, social identity
The ambition in work package 5 is to study the effects of intra-EU youth mobility on persons (1) skills and employability, (2) quality of life, and (3) identity. It uses the empirical material collected in work packages 1 and 3 to do both national and comparative analysis. Quantitative survey data enables us to compare migrants with both returned migrants and non-mobile youths. And over 800 in depth interviews helps us to gain more insights on what mobility means for young person’s careers, life satisfaction and identities.
WP6 – Youth mobility: territorial outcomes
The WP6 does a national and comparative analysis of the results provided by work packages 1 and 3 to focus on the territorial outcomes derived from youth mobility.
WP7 – Youth mobility – towards the future: intentions, scenarios and simulations
WP7 focuses on modeling. The outcomes are:
1) the study of the future individual migration intentions for the youth population that is accomplished by using the experimental methods whereby individual future migration intentions are analyzed in response to changes in the determinants of decision-making such as socio-demographic and economic conditions in different countries;
2) the exploration of future alternative scenarios relating to economic and socio-demographic changes.
The scenarios are explored using the data collected in the panel survey, the in-depth interviews and the experimental research methods. Neural networks analyses are employed to link these datasets for the purpose of exploring predicted responses to future scenarios, including changes in migration and flanking policies. The scenarios concern the youth mobility in European countries and regions.
WP8 – Youth mobility – towards the future: policy recommendations
WP 8 focuses on the examination of EU and national initiatives and policies that influence youth mobility, both directly and indirectly. The aim of WP8 is to provide policy recommendations for creating new policies at EU, national, local levels to maximize the benefits and minimize the costs associated with youth mobility. Policy recommendations are built on the analysis of existing legal regulations, secondary literature, empirical data from the YMOBILITY qualitative interviews, the outcomes of WP7, as well as case studies of existing initiatives and policies on the local, regional and national levels. This means that following steps are considered:
First, an overview of existing policies in relevant policy areas at different levels and in different national contexts is provided. The main policy arenas to be considered are migration and diaspora, employment regulations, education, welfare provision, housing and fiscal policies.
Second, based on the qualitative interview results, we analyze, weather young mobile people know about political initiatives and programs in these areas, how they perceive them, weather they have benefitted from them, and weather they consider a need for further political action.
Third, current best-practice policies are analyzed by highlighting two case studies in each consortium member country. The case studies examine how EU, national and local/regional initiatives and policies intersect to shape the utilization of the lifelong skills and competences of migrants and returned migrants.
Based on these steps, and particularly by considering research results, it is aimed to articulate policy recommendations that also represent the perceptions of young migrants regarding relevant policies and initiatives.
WP9 – Dissemination, exploitation and communication of results and citizens’engagement
The overall aim of WP9 is the exploitation and dissemination of the project’s objectives, approaches and results to relevant scientific community, civil society, local and central governments, and private business associations. WP9 activities are active during the whole project; they include the creation of a website, publications, the organization of communication/dissemination events and an international conference. The Management Team is the responsible for the creation and updating of the website, following the best-practice guidelines of the European Commission, and all the partners contribute to the technical, administrative and promotional content of the website as determined in the Communication, Dissemination and Exploitation Plan. In addition of 9 Ymobility project meetings, a programme of meetings is organized with secondary-school students, teachers and families as well as higher-education students. An international conference is organized to present the project experience to the different stakeholders, including the international scientific community, policy-makers, potential business partners and the general public, for the dissemination of the project results at the end of the project period. The research results are published in refereed journals and presented at major international conferences. An End-Users’ Board is set up at the beginning of the project.
It involves representatives of governmental institutions and decision-makers at national, regional and local levels, business associations, trade unions and nongovernmental institutions. Periodically the Board evaluates the project progression, giving its contribution with input and feedback, and paves the way for the long-term adoption of project results. The Board meets once per year in conjunction with project meetings.
WP10 – Project Management
WP10 is the responsible for the overall administrative coordination of the project to ensure timely implementation of all research activities. The activities concern the executive management, the financial management and the project coordination.
The operational management, to be carried out by the Project Management Team, comprehends administrative support to the participants, including communication on management, administrative and contractual issues. Furthermore, the Project Management Team ensures that the Steering Committee and the Scientific Coordination Team are set up, fully operative and receive administrative support. Moreover, the Project Management Team maintains the Consortium Agreement. In order to ensure a continuous communication flow, the Project Management Team establishes clear communication channels and facilitates internal communication through the management of mailing lists and a project web-based exchange platform. Concerning the financial tasks, the Project Management Team elaborates detailed financial plans for the activities of the various work packages for approval by the Steering Committee. Moreover, it collects financial statements and relevant certificates elaborated, and/or provided, by all the participants and it verifies their compliance with their performance and the planned activities, deliverables and milestones before the submission to the European Commission. Finally, the WP10’s activities concern also the elaboration of project reports in accordance with the guidelines issued by the EC, the coordination among the partners, the consortium and the European Commission. The Project Coordinator liaises with the European Commission on all organizational and contractual issues and sends periodic reports to the European Commission, after prior validation by the Steering Committee and, with the support of the Project Management Team, after verifying that the project deliverables prepared have a common style and are of a high quality.